This article covers an aspect of Mental health-characteristics of mentally healthy person, causes of mental illness and its prevention and control.
What is view of laymen regarding mental illness?
Is assessment of mental health is necessary ?
Mental illness occur because of Change in the level of neurotransmitter
what are characteristics of mentally health person..?
When individual has perfect state of balance with surrounding environment
Harmonious relations with others
Judgment are normal
Not having internal conflicts
Accept criticisms positively
Good self emotional control
Mental heath behavior of an individual is assessed by his attitude and behavior by
Psychiatrist/Psychologist/medical social workers
Types of mental disorders
1 .Mental deficiency or mental retardation
2.Behavioral disorders –common among children e.g. lying,stealing,aggressiveness,bed wetting
Types of Mental diseases
1.Acute brain disorder- delirium,alchol intoxication
2.Chronic brain disorder-senile dementia (Alzheimer’s disease)
1.Psychoses-insane and out of touch with reality
b.Manic depressive syndrome
Types of mental illness(cont.)
B.Neurotic disorder (Psychoneuroses)-normal person but unable to react normally to life situations. patients exhibit peculiar symptoms such as morbid fears, compulsions and obsession. They are characterized by anxiety which may be overt or sub conscious. Hysteria
Personality disorders-developmental defects
These are the disease with physical manifestations, having psychological factors as underlying cause.e.g.
Thyrotoxicosis,hypertension,coronary heart disease, duodenal ulcer, Rheumatoid arthritis
Most common types of presentation reported in hospitals
Mania- unipolar and bipolar
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Prevention and control of mental illness
The aim of primary prevention is to reduce the incidence of new cases of mental disorders
To promote positive mental health practices in the community
Strategies- educational, nutritional and social
Universal iodization programme
Industrial safety measures-lead and mercury poisoning.
Early diagnosis and treatment of condition like hypertension,syphills,diabetes will prevent mental defects in offspring
Prevention of infection like rubella,syphills,encephaliteis
Nutritional deficiency-pellagra, beri beri and anemia
Early diagnosis and treatment of genetic disease like phenyl ketonuria,hypothyroidism, and hydrocephalus.
Other general measures like security,affection,love especially among children are good housing, child placement services (like adoption, foster homes, orphanages etc) other measures include welfare services for refuges,distaters survivors etc
Personality development measures-like disciplined environment at home and at school.scout,NCC,etc foster team spirits and good personality and also helps in adjusting to adverse situations
High school children are made aware of the dangers of alchol,smoking and drug abuse.
Youth welfare services-adult responsibilities.
Social welfare measures- poverty, ignorance and illiteracy
Avoiding late marriage and consiginious marriage
Legal measures- salt,alcohol,ban on sale of psycho-active drugs
Early diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders through screening procedure in susceptible and vulnerable population like children, industrial workers etc
Family based heath services
Treatment through specific drug therapy, general measures and ECT.
General measures-YOGA,MEDITATION,SOCIAL SUPPORT
Aim is to reduce the duration of mental illness
To minimize disability and to rehabilitate the patient the patient as an useful member to family and community at large.
Day care programs
Half way homes
Self help group-the are the groups of parents having mentally retarded children. They share their problems among the co parents and resolve the problem by formation of welfare association, special schools or training centers for mentally retarded children.
Family service programs
Industrial training centers
Teamwork, Group work, family support, meditation and pranayama, vocational training and rehabilitation in family
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